Subject-Oriented Approach - an Adequate Response to the Challenges and Threats of the 21st Century

Purpose – To substantiate the relevance of the subject-oriented approach as a promising direction in the development of the systems approach and cybernetics for an adequate response to the challenges and threats of the 21st century. To describe the logic of the formation of a subject-oriented approach in the context of the development of ideas about scientific rationality (classical, non-classical, post-non-classical). From the standpoint of this approach, to make an analysis of a crisis of a model of a technogenic civilization and to show the non-subjectness of humanity on the example of the Covid-19 pandemic. To propose a promising direction of the system approach and cybernetics based on the subject-oriented approach.

Design/methodology/approach – The basic philosophical and methodological foundations are the ideas of three types of scientific rationality (classic, non-classical, post-non-classical), which are associated with three stages (paradigms) of the development of science (V.S. Stepin). Humanistic interpretation of philosophical constructivism, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach, methods of organizing reflexivity and social responsibility, ontologies and principles of organization of hybrid reality environments, focused on the integration of natural and artificial intelligence. The development of scientific rationality corresponds to the stages of development of cybernetics (first, second and third order). The subject-oriented approach provides post-nonclassical cybernetics of self-developing poly-subject (reflexive-active) environments - third-order cybernetics (Lepskiy 2018).

Findings – The subject-oriented approach corresponds to the logic of the development of scientific rationality, systems approach and cybernetics. This approach will contribute to the development of systems approach and cybernetics for an adequate response to the challenges and threats of the 21st century. It will allow to solve the problems of overcoming the non-subjectness of human development, assembling the subjects of development and their protection from manipulative influences.

Originality/value – The scientific novelty of the research is connected to the original philosophical and methodological justification of the relevance of the subject-oriented approach for the development of system approach and cybernetics. For the first time, this approach is used to develop third-order cybernetics (self-developing poly-subject environments). The use of a subject-oriented approach to analyze the crisis of a technogenic civilization also has scientific novelty. Modern approaches to innovations of social systems using digital technologies and artificial intelligence do not take into account the paradigms of the subject-oriented approach, which makes it difficult to create adequate criteria for their assessment and development of mechanisms for integrating natural and artificial intelligence.

Research/ Practical/ Social/ Environment implications – The subject-oriented approach will contribute to the development of systems approach and cybernetics, which will create new paradigms and systems of ontologies adequate to the challenges and threats of the 21st century. Based on this approach, criteria for assessing innovations in social systems using digital technologies and artificial intelligence will be developed and are already being developed.

Research limitations – Possible opposition to the implementation of the proposed approach in the control and development of social systems. The initiators can be corrupt officials and organizers of unauthorized (hidden) management projects of the world community, states and societies.

Keywords: subject-oriented approach, control, systems approach cybernetics, scientific rationality


Re-aligning the WOSC Congress with Covid-19 effects

A philosophical and methodological analysis of the evolution of cybernetics in the context of the development of scientific rationality is carried out. The evolution of cybernetics is represented as a movement from the methodology of "observable systems" (N. Wiener) to the methodology of "observing systems" (Von Foerster) and to the methodology of self-developing reflexive-active environments. Special attention is paid to the formation of a new promising direction for post-non-classical cybernetics of self-developing poly-subject (reflexive-active) environments, which, given the correlation with previous stages of cybernetics development (with classical and non-classical scientific rationality), we define as third-order cybernetics. The analysis of the basics of the formation of third-order cybernetics was carried out with consideration of interrelated aspects: philosophical, methodological, theoretical, and methodical. We also provide model of self-developing poly-subject (reflexive-active) environments, as well as a system of ontologies, defining the mechanisms of functioning of such self-organizing poly-subject environments and active elements that organize the communication space (natural, artificial intelligence, and combined formations). The ontology system also makes it possible to integrate cybernetics of the first, second, and third order. Some socio-humanitarian trends in the development of cybernetics are considered: from an external observer to a distributed observer; from monodisciplinary to transdisciplinary approaches; from the activity approach to the subject-activity one, and further to the subject-oriented approach; from information to active knowledge; from ethics of goals to ethics of strategic subjects. Potential opportunities for using third-order cybernetics are described, in order to improve the quality of solving a number of important scientific and practical problems of controlling social systems. Information is provided on the directions of approbation of a third-order cybernetics concept for improving state administration, based on a system of distributed situational centers and its approbation at international scientific conferences.
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