Subject-Oriented Approach - an Adequate Response to the Challenges and Threats of the 21st Century

Purpose – To substantiate the relevance of the subject-oriented approach as a promising direction in the development of the systems approach and cybernetics for an adequate response to the challenges and threats of the 21st century. To describe the logic of the formation of a subject-oriented approach in the context of the development of ideas about scientific rationality (classical, non-classical, post-non-classical). From the standpoint of this approach, to make an analysis of a crisis of a model of a technogenic civilization and to show the non-subjectness of humanity on the example of the Covid-19 pandemic. To propose a promising direction of the system approach and cybernetics based on the subject-oriented approach.

Design/methodology/approach – The basic philosophical and methodological foundations are the ideas of three types of scientific rationality (classic, non-classical, post-non-classical), which are associated with three stages (paradigms) of the development of science (V.S. Stepin). Humanistic interpretation of philosophical constructivism, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach, methods of organizing reflexivity and social responsibility, ontologies and principles of organization of hybrid reality environments, focused on the integration of natural and artificial intelligence. The development of scientific rationality corresponds to the stages of development of cybernetics (first, second and third order). The subject-oriented approach provides post-nonclassical cybernetics of self-developing poly-subject (reflexive-active) environments - third-order cybernetics (Lepskiy 2018).

Findings – The subject-oriented approach corresponds to the logic of the development of scientific rationality, systems approach and cybernetics. This approach will contribute to the development of systems approach and cybernetics for an adequate response to the challenges and threats of the 21st century. It will allow to solve the problems of overcoming the non-subjectness of human development, assembling the subjects of development and their protection from manipulative influences.

Originality/value – The scientific novelty of the research is connected to the original philosophical and methodological justification of the relevance of the subject-oriented approach for the development of system approach and cybernetics. For the first time, this approach is used to develop third-order cybernetics (self-developing poly-subject environments). The use of a subject-oriented approach to analyze the crisis of a technogenic civilization also has scientific novelty. Modern approaches to innovations of social systems using digital technologies and artificial intelligence do not take into account the paradigms of the subject-oriented approach, which makes it difficult to create adequate criteria for their assessment and development of mechanisms for integrating natural and artificial intelligence.

Research/ Practical/ Social/ Environment implications – The subject-oriented approach will contribute to the development of systems approach and cybernetics, which will create new paradigms and systems of ontologies adequate to the challenges and threats of the 21st century. Based on this approach, criteria for assessing innovations in social systems using digital technologies and artificial intelligence will be developed and are already being developed.

Research limitations – Possible opposition to the implementation of the proposed approach in the control and development of social systems. The initiators can be corrupt officials and organizers of unauthorized (hidden) management projects of the world community, states and societies.

Keywords: subject-oriented approach, control, systems approach cybernetics, scientific rationality

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